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What if your electric car could travel 1000 miles on a single
charge, charge in 10 minutes, and last for 1 million miles?
Today just about every electric car uses lithium ion batteries.
They’re pretty good, but ultimately are heavy and have long
charging times for the amount of energy they can store.
According to Elon Musk, battery modules are the main limiting
factor in electric vehicle life. In 2019 he said the Tesla Model
3 drive unit is rated for 1 million miles, but the battery isn’t
as long lasting.
To handle the predicted demand explosion for electric vehicles
over the coming decades, we’ll need to create a breakthrough
battery that is cheaper, longer lasting, more durable, and more
efficient. We must also address the issues of political and
environmental sustainability to ensure batteries remain tenable
in an increasingly electric future.
Over 80% of world’s lithium deposits are found in China, and
current technology also relies heavily on cobalt, an element
mostly found in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
After Tesla’s recent battery day, where Elon Musk announced
a larger, tabless 4680 battery cell with improved energy density,
greater ease of manufacturing, and lower cost. The world’s attention
is now more focused on batteries than ever before, but Tesla
isn’t the only show in town.
Lithium air batteries. Metal air batteries have been around
for a while. You might find a little zinc air button cell in
a hearing aid, for example, but scaled up aluminum and lithium
air chemistries are also promising for the automotive and aerospace
industries. The potential for lightweight batteries with high
energy storage makes this battery technology promising. Lithium
air batteries could have a maximum theoretical specific energy
of 3,460 W h/kg , almost 10 times more than lithium ion. NASA
researchers have also been investigating lithium air batteries
for use in aircraft. This technology still has a long way to
go before your take your next business trip is in an electric
Nanotech Batteries. Nanotechnology has been a buzzword for several
decades, but is now finding applications in everything from
nanoelectronics to biomedical engineering, and body armor to
extra-slippery clothing irons. Nanomaterials make use of particles
and structures 1-100 nanometers in size, essentially one size
up from the molecular scale. Carbon nanostructures also show
great promise. Graphene is one of the most exciting of these.
Amprius go one stage further with their anodes of ‘100% silicon
nanowire’. The maker claims that they can achieve 500 Wh/kg
which is in the range suitable for enabling electric aircraft
in partnership with Airbus. Nanomaterial research is promising
Lithium sulphur batteries are one emerging technology that can
offer greatly improved energy densities compared to lithium-ion.
The theoretical maximum specific energy of this chemistry is
2,567 Wh/kg compared to lithium ion’s 350 Wh/kg maximum.
Solid state electrolytes. A common theme in emerging technologies
so far has been researchers’ desire to develop solid state electrolytes.
These would replace flammable organic liquids with stable, crystalline
or glassy-state solids, or polymer-base. It is hoped that using
these solid electrolytes would enable the use of metallic lithium
electrodes to provide higher output voltages and allow for increased
energy density. Panasonic have also been looking into solid
state electrolytes. It is notable that Tesla have been partnered
with Panasonic in their existing lithium-ion manufacturing capacity,
but it is Toyota who have publicly announced their collaboration
with Panasonic to develop next generation solid state batteries.
Samsung too are working on solid state batteries.
Dual carbon batteries. Two carbon electrodes and a non-toxic
electrolyte with the ability to extract more power than from
conventional lithium ion, and their ability to charge 20 times
faster, and these lithium-ion variants could be the future for
Better batteries are also important for the advancement of stationary
storage from renewable energy sources such as solar power. Tesla
is also making headway into this sector, with products like
the powerwall home battery, and powerpack commercial energy
The technologies discussed in this video could have huge implications
on different battery powered transportation options besides
just electric cars. Imagine the potential in everything from
electric bikes to electric scooters and electric boats to electric
airplanes. Consumer electronics also stand to experience vast
improvements in battery life in devices such as smart phones,
laptops, cameras, and more. The future is electric!